Air Pollution in İstanbul
- The Effects of Air Pollution on Human Health
Rapidly growing population and urbanization all over the world has brought environmental pollution to the agenda. Industrialization, domestic waste and heating and motor vehicle traffic caused soil causes air pollution. Environmental pollution, especially in the twentieth century, emerged as a challenge for the countries of the world, but also brings with it global warming and climate change. The possibility of global climate change to reach life-threatening quantities has led to insufficient measures on environmental pollution on a national scale and it has become inevitable for the countries of the world to work together. Environmental data is monitored through monitoring stations around the world. The main purpose of many monitoring programs is to determine the tendency and change of pollution levels in time related environmental data (Yolsal, 2016).
Air pollution is a problem that accumulates together with urbanization and threatens human health. The quality of the air we breathe is more important for cities like Istanbul, which has the highest population in Turkey and most of the heavy traffic flow. Air Pollution is the natural composition of the air that will deteriorate due to the rise of some gases in the air composition above normal and the heating, transportation and economic activities of the human. While the air is defined as one of the public goods as other environmental goods in the economic literature, it is classified as global public goods, with the common opinion seen in recent years. It is used free of charge as in all public goods. Being free causes air contamination and quality to deteriorate easily by economic units. Improvement activities to prevent air pollution also impose a burden on the provincial economy. As a result, air pollution and all environmental problems have negative effects on economies. Especially in big cities, air pollution reaches to sizes that can affect human health. It is known that the effects of air pollution on human health are in the respiratory system first and cause cough, bronchitis, asthma attacks and trigger many diseases from heart diseases to lung cancer. In addition to being related to the physiological defense mechanism of the individual, it is seen that young children and the elderly are more affected by air pollution. (Yolsal, 2016)
In addition, air pollutants are monitored through many stations in Istanbul. In order to improve air quality, it is necessary to monitor the changes of these pollutants over time and to estimate their tendencies. However, as with all environmental data, the pollutants listed in the air quality index, asymmetric, seasonal, serial connected, does not fit the normal distribution. (Shihomi & Tekeşin, 2016).
- To Prevent Air Pollution by Government
Air quality management is necessary to maintain the quality of air that does not harm human health and well-being in a city. The aim of air quality management should be to ensure that air quality should be maintained at levels that will protect human health, as well as the protection of animals, plants (crops, forests and natural vegetation), ecosystems, historical sites (buildings, statues, monuments, etc.). To achieve this goal, policies and strategies should be developed by global and regional / local authorities. Government policy is the establishment of an air quality management system. Without an appropriate policy framework and adequate legislation, it is difficult to maintain an effective or successful air quality management program. A policy framework should include policies in the areas of transport, energy, planning, development and environment (Control Department, 2009).
Air quality management in cities for the last two or thirty years developed countries expanded in scope. However, emphasis and The success of management activities is changing. While considerable progress has been made in improving the air quality in some major cities of developing countries, many major cities still face significant challenges for the implementation of effective actions. It is also recognized that urban air pollution can be carried over long distances and may affect areas outside the local and national boundaries. Policy makers require access to existing emission data and often use such scenario type manipulations to examine possible changes in air quality in the future (Control Department, 2009).
- Air Pollution by The State Act
Air quality is determined by the amount of harmful substances in the air. Road and sea traffic, emissions from factories and industries, urban transformation, agriculture, mining operations and indoor air pollution increase these concentrations and expose them to air pollution. In order to find solutions to air pollution and thus to improve air quality, we need to understand the factors that cause risk of air pollution and health. The things that the state does not do as much as they do cause air pollution. The most important one is not taking necessary measures by government. Not being able to determine the location of industrial establishments, opening of the forest areas to the settlement and not measuring the air quality are the leading factors (Kara, 2008).
The inadequacy of the measures taken for fuel consumption, the establishment of factories in places close to the settlements (for example, in forests, in parks etc.) and the permission of the state, cause air pollution in Istanbul. Due to the implementation of many large infrastructure and construction projects in Istanbul, urban transformation seems to be contributing to the air pollution in the city. In addition, agricultural activities have an important place in this regard. Ammonia is very common among products resulting from agricultural activities and is one of the most dangerous gases in the atmosphere. The use of pesticides, pesticides and fertilizers in agricultural activities has grown considerably, leading to the spread of harmful chemicals. As long as these are allowed by the state, air pollution becomes permanent. Another incident that causes air pollution is related to mining operations. Mining is a process where minerals under the earth are extracted with large equipment. For this reason, the regulations regarding the processing of mines should be made in order not to pollute the air. There is a shortage in this regulation by the state (Kara, 2008).
- What The State Should Do About Air Pollution?
It is necessary to create awareness about environmentally friendly driving techniques. Use of filter and catalytic converter systems for exhaust emission control in vehicles. Reduction of pollution by using environmentally acceptable vehicles and fuels in public transport. Introducing alternative and more sustainable modes of transport to cars. Development and dissemination of maritime transport is important to take prevention. Encourage the implementation of park and ride applications is important for this issue. In addition to fuel characteristics, exhaust emissions are also caused by incorrect driving techniques. Green driving tips; will be encouraged to plan and combine trips, keep the cars in good condition, refrain from refueling, refuel properly, accelerate air conditioning, accelerate properly, avoid excessive idle in non-traffic situations and maintain constant speed (Control Department, 2009).
Filter and catalytic converter systems must be used for exhaust emission control in vehicles. Reduction of pollution by using environmentally acceptable vehicles and fuels in public transport. Introducing alternative and more sustainable modes of transport to cars. Development and dissemination of maritime transport. Encourage the implementation of Park and Ride applications. In addition to fuel characteristics, exhaust emissions are also caused by incorrect driving techniques. Green driving tips; will be encouraged to plan and combine trips, keep the cars in good condition, refrain from refueling, refuel properly, accelerate air conditioning, accelerate properly, avoid excessive idle in non-traffic situations and maintain constant speed. Appropriate filter systems contribute greatly to reducing exhaust emissions. Especially for vehicles with traffic during the day (eg public transport buses, taxis), the filter device is very important for emission reduction (Control Department, 2009).
Sea transport needs to be developed and expanded. Park and bicycle use should be encouraged. In addition to fuel characteristics, exhaust emissions are also caused by incorrect driving techniques. Green driving tips; will be encouraged to plan and combine trips, keep the cars in good condition, refrain from refueling, properly inflate ties, repair air conditioning, accelerate smoothly, avoid excessive idle in non-traffic situations and maintain constant speed. Appropriate filter systems contribute greatly to reducing exhaust emissions. Especially for vehicles with traffic during the day (eg public transport buses, taxis), the filter device is very important for emission reduction. The most efficient use of energy, the use of less polluting fossil fuels, the use of non-fossil energy sources, the use of newer and more environmentally friendly combustion technologies will reduce emissions from vehicles and will be encouraged, in particular, to achieve national air quality (Control Department, 2009).
In order to reduce air pollution, industrial zone selection is required considering the wind direction. Use of environmentally friendly fuels is important. Industrial resource contribution to air quality should be considered. The effects of neighboring regions on air quality are extremely effective. Promoting new technologies in the industry will be effective in reducing air pollution. Promoting the use of natural gas in all parts of Istanbul reduces air pollution. To promote thermal insulation in houses it is necessary to keep the air clean. Signal optimization should be carried out on intersections, tunnels and bridges to facilitate traffic. Location selection for industries should be outside residential areas and should be based on dominant wind directions and location of settlements. To save energy and reduce emissions, fuel efficiency and the use of environmentally friendly fuels should be maximized to use. The contribution of each industrial resource to local and regional air quality should be measured and the necessary control equipment should be selected (Elbir & Bayram, 2000).
Air Pollution In İstanbul, Orkide Nur Kara, 2018.
Effects of air pollution on respiratory hospital admissions in İstanbul, Turkey, 2013 to 2015, Özkan Çapraz Ali Deniz & Nida Doğan, 2017.
Estimation of The Air Quality Trends in İstanbul, Handan Yolsal, 2016.
Evaluation of some air pollution indicators in Turkey, Tolga Elbir & Abdurrahman Bayram, 2000.
İstanbul Air Quality Strategy, İstanbul Metropolitan Municipality Environmental Protection and Control Department, 2009.
The evaluation of the air pollution index in Turkey, Aylin Çiğdem Köne & Tayfun Büke, 2014.
The monetary valuation of acute respiratory illness from air pollution in Turkey, Ara Shihomi & Cem Tekeşin, in January, 2016.